CHAPTER 4COMPUTER COMPONENTS AND CIRCUITSINTRODUCTIONThe computer’s functions and operations can be very complex. However,fundamentally they are based upon simple building blocks that are repeated manytimes in the computer. The computer uses a binary system: it has two, and onlytwo, states. The digital functions and operations of the computer are based uponlogic algebra (Boolean algebra), which is a perfect fit for the binary (base 2) numbersystem. Let’s take these two concepts—logic algebra and binary—and apply themto the computer’s number systems, logic, circuits, and data types and formats.To maintain computers effectively, you must understand their components(number systems, logic, circuits, data types and formats, and power supplies) andhow they make up a computer’s functional areas. You must understand theirfunctions in a computer and be able to determine if a computer’s components arefunctioning properly.This topic will refresh your knowledge of computer components. Keep in mindthat the technology is ever changing, but the components are common to allcomputers; an AND gate works the same in a microcomputer as it does in a largemainframe. A computer performs arithmetic and logical functions on the inputdata, and then outputs data to the appropriate computer or device.The logic circuits used in a computer will be based on the requirements of thecomputer and on what logic circuits best fulfill the requirements. Table 4-1 listsmanuals and documents that provide information on circuits; integrated circuits(ICs) (linear and digital), their types, identification, methods of production,packaging, size integration, logic family, and specifications; standard cells(symbols); circuit types, operations and uses; Boolean algebra; and numbersystems. If you want to refresh your knowledge of any of these areas, werecommend you study the appropriate manuals and/or documents.After completing this chapter, you should be able to:Describe how number systems are used in computersDescribe how Boolean algebra can be applied to computersDescribe how ICs are packaged and their various integration sizesDescribe the families of digital logic and differentiate between themInterpret digital logic gate waveshapesDescribe digital ICs—their groups, logic gates, flip-flops, and functionaluses4-1