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FURNACE

 
  
 
Figure 4-10.—Side view of an economizer. It  is  important  that  all  internal  fittings  are properly installed and in good working condition. If  excessive  moisture  is  carried  over  into  the superheater,  serious  damage  will  result  in  the superheater  tubes,  piping,  and  turbines. The economizer (fig. 4-10) is an arrangement of  tubes  installed  in  the  uptake  space  from the  furnace.  The  economizer  tubes  have  metal projections  from  the  outer  tube  surfaces.  These projections  are  called  by  various  names,  including FINS,  STUDS,  RINGS,  or  GILL  RINGS.  They are made of aluminum, steel, or other metals, in a  variety  of  shapes.  These  projections  serve  to extend the heat transfer surface of the tubes on which they are installed. Before  entering  the  steam  drum,  all  feedwater flows   through   the   economizer   tubes.   The economizer tubes are heated by the rising gases of  combustion.  The  feedwater  is  warmed  or preheated  by  the  combustion  gases  that  would otherwise  be  wasted  as  they  pass  up  the  stack. In figure 4-1 you can see that the economizer is positioned  on  top  of  the  boiler.  There  it  acts  as a preheater. So far, you have learned how the water gets to the boiler and what happens while it’s there. Next, let’s find out how the water is heated, where the heat comes from, and what boiler components are necessary for generating this heat. FURNACE The  furnace,  or  firebox,  is  the  large,  room- like  space  where  air  and  fuel  are  mixed  for  the combustion  (fire)  that  heats  the  water  in  the drums,  tubes,  and  headers. The furnace is more or less a rectangular steel casing  that  is  lined  on  the  floor  and  walls  with refractory   (heat-resisting)   material.   Refractory materials used in naval boilers include firebrick, insulating brick, insulating block, and air-setting 4-11

   


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