opening  and  the  balloon  will  shoot  off  in  the opposite   direction. When the balloon is filled with air, you have potential  energy  stored  in  the  increased  air pressure  inside.  When  you  let  the  air  escape,  it passes  through  the  small  opening.  This  represents a transformation from potential energy to kinetic energy. The force applied to the air to speed up the  balloon  is  acted  upon  by  a  reaction  in  the opposite direction. This reactive force propels the balloon  forward  through  the  air. You may think that the force that makes the balloon  move  forward  comes  from  the  jet  of  air blowing against the air in the room, not so. It is the  reaction  of  the  force  of  the  air  as  it  passes through  the  opening  that  causes  the  balloon  to move   forward. The  reaction  turbine  has  all  the  advantages  of the impulse-type turbine, plus a slower operating speed  and  greater  efficiency.  The  alternating  rows of  fixed  and  moving  blades  transfers  the  heat energy  of  the  steam  to  kinetic  energy,  then  to mechanical  energy. We  have  discussed  the  simple  impulse  and reaction  turbines.  Practical  applications  require various power outputs. Turbines are constructed with  one  or  more  simple  turbines  made  as  one. This  is  done  in  much  the  same  way  that  the varying  cylinder  size  of  a  car  engine  varies power.  Figures  5-6  and  5-7  show  typical  naval turbines. TURBINE  CLASSIFICATION So  far  we  have  classified  turbines  into  two general   groups:    IMPULSE  TURBINES  and REACTION  TURBINES,  depending  on  the method  used  to  cause  the  steam  to  do  useful 139.58 Figure 5-6.—Impulse main propulsion turbine. 5-4


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