another. Fuel storage tanks are connected by pipes and
valves, some of which discharge overboard. All it takes
is ONE human error, ONE valve to be open or shut
through a vent pipe, and your ship has ONE spill in
progress. The simplest solution is to have the people
who operate the system do so in a conscientious manner.
The people who operate and maintain the pollution
control equipment should always be professionally
trained and fully qualified.
Oil Spill Removal
If an accident occurs and oil is spilled, your ship
should take prompt action to contain the oil and clean it
up. A quick reaction by your ships trained crew results
in containment and often collection of the entire spill
without the assistance of shore-based personnel.
Every ship should have an Oil Spill Containment
and Cleanup Kit (O. S. C. C. K). Instructions for its use
can be found in U.S. Navy Oil Spill Containment and
Cleanup Kit, Mark 1, NAVSEA 0994-LP-013-6010.
This manual describes applicable safety precautions for
the use of the kit.
The kit consists of various sizes of porous mats, boat
hooks, grappling hooks, plastic bags, and an instruction
book for their use. If there is a spill, these absorbent mats
are used by ships personnel to soak up the spilled oil.
First, soak the porous mats in diesel fuel and wring them
out, which causes the mats to soak up the oil instead of
water. After they are prepared, throw the mats on the oil
spill to soak it up. Then, retrieve the porous mats using
the boat hooks and grappling hooks. Next, wring the oil
out of the mats into suitable containers. Then, throw the
mats back onto the oil spill to soak up more oil. After
the oil spill is removed, store the porous mats in plastic
bags for disposal at a shore-based facility.
Additionally, containment trawlers can be rigged
around a ship in port anytime the ship is engaged in
fueling activities. Trawlers are floating fences made up
of linked, buoyant pillows that confine any spilled oil to
the vicinity of the hull.
NOISE POLLUTION AND CONTROL
Another type of pollution, which is often not
thought of as pollution, is noise. Prolonged exposure to
loud noises is not only psychologically taxing but also
a cause of hearing loss. Continued exposure to noise
levels of 85 decibels (dB) or greater and impact or
impulse noise of 140 dB can cause severe hearing loss.
You need to be aware of this problem because spaces in
the engineering department can easily have average
Figure 13-1.-Circumaural (Mickey Mouse) type of ear
noise levels within the danger range. The Navy has
implemented an occupational noise and hearing
conservation program. The goal of this program is to
eliminate all noise hazards to personnel.
Wherever possible, noise is being reduced by design
and insulation. When there are no other practical means
available, personal protective hearing devices MUST be
worn. Furthermore, anyone who works in spaces where
noise levels exceed 104 dB must wear a combination of
insert-type ear plugs and circumaural-type ear muffs
In addition, each person assigned to duties in
designated hazardous noise areas are included in the
hearing conservation program and receive the required
hearing tests within 90 days of that assignment. This
procedure serves to determine if a significant hearing
loss has occurred. Hazardous noise areas are identified
and labeled by either the ships medical personnel or an
industrial hygienist. Audiometric hearing tests are
required annually to monitor ships personnel who are
exposed to noise hazards. (Refer to Navy Occupational
Safety and Health (NAVOSH) Program Manual,
OPNAVINST 5100.23 [series].
ASBESTOS POLLUTION AND CONTROL
The inhalation of asbestos fibers can, after a period
of years, cause a crippling respiratory condition called
asbestosis. Exposure to asbestos can also cause several
forms of cancer. All personnel who work around
asbestos, and who smoke, should be aware that their
chance of contracting lung cancer is increased