Chapter 9 Pumps, Valves, and Piping

CHAPTER 9 PUMPS,  VALVES,  AND  PIPING As  a  Fireman,  you  must  have  a  general knowledge  of  the  basic  operating  principles  of various   types   of   pumps   and   supporting   com- ponents, such as the different types of valves and piping  used  aboard  ships. Aboard  ship,  pumps,  valves,  and  piping  are used  for  a  number  of  essential  services.  They supply  water  to  the  boilers,  draw  condensate  from the condensers, supply seawater to the firemain, circulate  cooling  water  for  coolers  and  condensers, pump  out  bilges,  transfer  fuel  oil,  supply  seawater to  the  distilling  plants,  and  are  used  for  many other  purposes.  The  operation  of  the  ship’s propulsion plant and of almost all the auxiliary machinery  depends  on  the  proper  operation  of pumps.  Although  most  plants  have  two  pumps, a main pump and a standby pump, pump failure may  cause  failure  of  an  entire  power  plant. With  the  knowledge  gained  in  this  chapter, you  should  be  able  to  describe  pumps,  valves,  and piping  systems  in  terms  of  their  construction, function, and operation. The information in this chapter,  as  it  is  throughout  the  book,  is  of  a broad  and  general  nature.  You  should  refer  to  the appropriate   manufacturer’s   technical   manuals and/or ship’s plans, information books, and plant or  valve  manuals  for  specific  problems  with individual equipment. By studying this material, you  should  be  able  to  relate  to  the  specific equipment  found  on  your  ship. PUMPS Pumps are vitally important to the operation of  your  ship.  If  they  fail,  the  power  plant  they serve also fails. In an emergency, pump failures can  prove  disastrous.  Maintaining  pumps  in  an efficient working order is a very important task of  the  engineering  department.  As  a  Fireman,  you must  have  a  general  knowledge  of  the  basic operating  principles  of  the  various  types  of  pumps used  by  the  Navy. It is not practical or necessary to mention all of the various locations where pumps are found aboard  ship.  You  will  learn  their  location  and operation as you perform your duties. The pumps with which you are primarily concerned are used for  such  purposes  as .  providing  fuel  oil  to  the  prime  mover, .   circulating   lubricating   (lube)   oil   to   the bearings  and  gears  of  the  MRG, .  supplying  seawater  for  the  coolers  in engineering spaces, .  pumping  out  the  bilges,  and . transferring fuel oil to various storage and service tanks. CLASSIFICATION  OF  PUMPS Pumps   aboard   ship   outnumber   all   other auxiliary machinery units. They include such types as  centrifugal,  rotary,  and  jet  pumps.  In  the following  section  we  discuss  these  different  pumps and  their  application  to  the  engineering  plant. Centrifugal Pumps Aboard gas turbine ships, centrifugal pumps of various sizes are driven by electric motors to move different types of liquid. The fire pump and seawater service pump are two examples of this type  of  pump. A  basic  centrifugal  pump  has  an  impeller keyed  to  a  drive  shaft,  which  is  rotated  by  an electric  motor.  The  drive  shaft  is  fitted  inside  a casing, which has a suction inlet and a discharge 9-1


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