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AXIAL-FLOW   COMPRESSOR

 
  
 
The compressor draws in air at the hub of the impeller  and  accelerates  it  radially  outward  by centrifugal force through the impeller. It leaves the impeller at high speed and low pressure and flows through the diffuser (fig. 6-10, view A). The diffuser  converts  the  high-speed,  low-pressure  air to  low-speed,  high-pressure  air.  The  compressor manifold diverts the low-speed, high-pressure air from the diffuser into the combustion chambers. In this design, the manifold has one outlet port for  each  combustion  chamber. The outlet ports are bolted to an outlet elbow on  the  manifold.  The  outlet  ports  ensure  that the  same  amount  of  air  is  delivered  to  each combustion   chamber. The  outlet  elbows  (known  by  a  variety  of names)  change  the  airflow  from  radial  to  axial flow.  The  diffusion  process  is  completed  after the  turn.  Each  elbow  contains  from  two  to  four turning  vanes  that  perform  the  turning  process and  reduce  air  pressure  losses  by  providing  a smooth  turning  surface. AXIAL-FLOW   COMPRESSOR In  the  axial-flow  engine,  the  air  is  compressed while  continuing  its  original  direction  of  flow Figure 6-11.—Stator and rotor components of an axial-flow compressor. parallel to the axis of the compressor rotor. The compressor  is  located  at  the  very  front  of  the engine.  The  purpose  of  the  axial  compressor  is to  take  in  ambient  air,  increase  the  speed  and pressure,  and  discharge  the  air  through  the diffuser  into  the  combustion  chamber. The  two  main  elements  of  an  axial-flow compressor  are  the  rotor  and  stator  (fig.  6-11). The   rotor   is   the   rotating   element   of   the compressor. The stator is the fixed element of the compressor. The rotor and stator are enclosed in the  compressor  case. The rotor has fixed blades that force the air rearward much like an aircraft propeller. In front of the first rotor stage are the inlet guide vanes (IGVs). These vanes direct the intake air toward the   first   set   of   rotor   blades.   Directly   behind each rotor stage is a stator. The stat or directs the air  rearward  to  the  next  rotor  stage  (fig.  6-12). Each consecutive pair of rotor and stator blades constitutes a pressure stage. Figure 6-12.—Operating principle of an axial-flow com- pressor. 6-7

   


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