Normally, you will maintain three types of anchor
windlassesthe electric, electrohydraulic, and
hand-driven windlasses. Hand-driven windlasses are
used only on small ships where the anchor gear can be
handled without excessive effort by operating
The major work on a hand windlass is to properly
adjust the link, friction shoes, locking head, and brake
and to keep them in satisfactory operating condition at
all times. In an electrohydraulic windlass, your principal
concern is the hydraulic system.
A windlass is used intermittently and for short
periods of time. However, it must handle the required
load under severe conditions. This means that you must
maintain and adjust the machinery when it is not in use.
This practice will prevent deterioration and ensure
Windlass brakes must be kept in satisfactory
condition if they are to function properly. Wear and
compression of brake linings increases the clearance
between the brake drum and band after a windlass has
been in operation. Inspect brake linings and clearances
frequently. Make adjustments according to the
You should follow the lubrication instructions
furnished by the manufacturer. If a windlass has been
idle for some time, lubricate it. This protects finished
surfaces from corrosion and prevents seizure of moving
The hydraulic transmissions of electrohydraulic
windlasses and other auxiliaries are manufactured with
close tolerances between moving and stationary parts.
Keep dirt and other abrasive material out of the system.
When the system is replenished or refilled, use only
clean oil. Strain it as it is poured into the tank. If a
hydraulic transmission is disassembled, clean it
thoroughly before reassembly. Before installing piping
or valves, clean their interiors to remove any scale, dirt,
preservatives, or other foreign matter.
Winches are used to heave in on mooring lines, to
hoist boats, as top lifts on jumbo booms of large
auxiliary ships, and to handle cargo. Power for operating
shipboard winches is usually furnished by electricity
and, on some older ships, by steam. Sometimes delicate
control and high acceleration without jerking are
required, such as for handling aircraft. Electrohydraulic
winches are usually installed for this purpose. Most
auxiliary ships are equipped with either electrohydraulic
or electric winches.
Some of the most common winches used for general
cargo handling are the double-drum, double-gypsy, and
the single-drum, single-gypsy units. Four-drum,
two-gypsy machines are generally used for
Electrohydraulic winches (fig. 10-39) are always
drum type. The drive equipment is like most hydraulic
systems. A constant-speed electric motor drives the
A-end (variable-speed hydraulic pump), which is
connected to the B-end (hydraulic motor) by suitable
piping. The drum shaft is driven by the hydraulic motor
through reduction gearing..
Normally, winches have one horizontally mounted
drum and one or two gypsy heads. If only one gypsy is
required, it is easily removed from or assembled on
either end of the drum shaft. When a drum is to be used,
it is connected to the shaft by a clutch.
An electrically driven winch is shown in figure
10-40. This winch is a single-drum, single-gypsy type.
The electric motor drives the unit through a set of
reduction gears. A clutch engages or disengages the
drum from the drum shaft. Additional features include
an electric brake and a speed control switch.
The terms capstan and winch should not be
confused. A winch has a horizontal shaft and a capstan
has a vertical shaft. The type of capstan installed aboard
ship depends on the load requirements and type of power
available. In general, a capstan consists of a single head
mounted on a vertical shaft, reduction gearing, and a
power source. The types, classified according to power
source, are electric and steam. Electric capstans are
usually of the reversible type. They develop the same
speed and power in either direction. Capstans driven by
ac motors run at either full, one-half, or one-third speed.
Capstans driven by dc motors usually have from three
to five speeds in either direction of rotation.